Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire

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Pisces.png Substantial Time-identity

1st/6 historical periods of the Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire on the 6th/8 levels; the worldwide or global level, context or scope of providential history in the Age of Substantial Time-identity.

Persecution by the Roman Empire

400 years of the 1st/6 periods of Substantial Time-identity is the Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire covering the period of time of AD 1 through to AD 400.

The early Christians underwent a period of suffering to restore through indemnity the foundation of faith which had been destroyed due to the mistake of the Jewish people, who did not properly follow Jesus as the living sacrifice. This was the 400-year Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire. The persecution abated by AD 313, when the Emperor Constantine formally recognized Christianity as a legal religion. In AD 392, the Emperor Theodosius I established Christianity as the state religion. This period was the substantial parallel to the Israelites' 400-year Period of Slavery in Egypt.[1]

Christians gathered the writings which had been left behind by the apostles and evangelists and established the canon of the New Testament. Based on these writings, they sought to realize God's ideals spiritually, ideals which had been enshrined in the Ten Commandments and the Tabernacle in the Old Testament Age. They built up churches and expanded their foundation to prepare for the Second Coming of Christ. After Jesus' ascension, the resurrected Jesus and the Holy Spirit guided Christians directly.[2]

The dynamic image (24-30 FPS) of the minor arcana [3](אר-כנע) tarot (טרות) that is attributed to the Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire is Queen of Wands.

Roman Emperors

Principate:

Julio-Claudian dynasty

  • Augustus (IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS) great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar; became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate, reigned during BC AYN 27-AD 14,
  • Tiberius (TIBERIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS) adopted by Augustus as his son and heir, reigned during AD 14-AD 37,
  • Caligula (GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS) natural son of Germanicus; great-grandson of Augustus, reigned during AD 37-AD 41,

Year of the Four Emperors AD 69 and Flavian Dynasty

  • Galba (SERVIVS SVLPICIVS GALBA CAESAR AVGVSTVS) seized power after Nero's suicide, reigned during AD 68-AD 69,
  • Otho (MARCVS SALVIVS OTHO CAESAR AVGVSTVS) appointed by Praetorian Guard, reigned during AD 69-AD 69,
  • Vitellius (AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS) seized power with support of German Legions, reigned during AD 69-AD 69,
  • Vespasian (TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS) seized power with the support of the eastern Legions, reigned during AD 69-AD 79,
  • Titus (TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS) eldest son of Vespasian, reigned during AD 79-AD 81,
    • Domitian (TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS) youngest son of Vespasian, reigned during AD 81-AD 96.

Nerva–Antonine Dynasty

  • Nerva (MARCVS COCCEIVS NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS) appointed by the Senate, reigned during AD 96-AD 98,
  • Trajan (CAESAR MARCVS VLPIVS NERVA TRAIANVS AVGVSTVS) adopted son and heir of Nerva, reigned during AD 98-AD 117,
  • Hadrian (CAESAR PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS) adopted son and heir of Trajan, reigned during AD 117-AD 138,
  • Antoninus Pius (CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS) adopted son and heir of Hadrian, reigned during AD 138-AD 161,
  • Marcus Aurelius (CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS) adopted son, son-in-law and heir of Antoninus Pius, reigned during AD 161-AD 180,
  • Lucius Verus (CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS) Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius, reigned during AD 161-AD 169,
  • Commodus (CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS) natural son of Marcus Aurelius, reigned during AD 177-AD 192,

Year of the Five Emperors AD 193 and Severan dynasty

  • Pertinax (CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS) proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard, reigned during AD 193-AD 193,
  • Didius Julianus (CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS) won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor, reigned during AD 193-AD 193,
    • Pescennius Niger (GAIVS PESCINNIVS NIGER AVGVSTVS) claimed the imperial throne in response to the murder of Pertinax, reigned during AD 193-AD 193,
    • Clodius Albinus (DECIMVS CLODIVS SEPTIMIVS ALBINUS AVGVSTVS) proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania, reigned during AD 193, AD 196-AD 197,
  • Septimius Severus (CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS) seized power with support of Pannonian legions, reigned during AD 193-AD 211.

The Severan dynasty was last lineage of the Principate founded by Augustus.

  • Caracalla (CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS) eldest son of Septimius Severus, reigned during AD 198-AD 217,
  • Geta (CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTUS) younger son of Septimius Severus, reigned during AD 209-AD 211, Interlude:
    • Macrinus (MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS FELIX) Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, reigned during AD 217-AD 218,
    • Diadumenian (MARCVS OPELLIVS ANTONINVS DIADUMENIANVS) appointed by Caracalla as junior emperor, reigned during AD 217-AD 218,
  • Elagabalus (MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS) grandson-in-law of Septimius Severus; proclaimed emperor by Syrian legions, reigned during AD 218-AD 222,

Barracks Emperors during AD 235-AD 285

Crisis of the Third Century during AD 235-AD 285:

Britannic Emperors during AD 286AD 296,
Mausaeus Carausius takes power in Britain and proclaims himself Emperor, AD 287,
Carausius defeats Emperor Maximian in a naval battle, AD 289,
Finance minister Allectus murders Carausius and seizes power; employs Frankish mercenaries, AD 293,
Julius Constantius defeats Britons near Silchester, killing Allectus; prevents retreating Franks from sacking London, AD 296,

Dominate:

Tetrarchy and Constantinian Dynasty

Lasting 40 years AD 285 through AD 324 beginning with Diocletian through to Constantine (AD 313) when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East.

1st/7 Tetrarchys during AD 286AD 293 Augusti: Oriens Diocletian (CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS) proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, reigned during AD 284-AD 305 in the East and
AD 286AD 293 Augusti: Occidens Maximian (CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS) adopted as senior co-emperor in the west by Diocletian, reigned during AD 286-AD 305 in the West,

Tetrarchy (τετραρχία); "four firsts," was the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in AD 293,

Although the Tetrarchic system as such only lasted until AD 313, many aspects survived. The fourfold regional division of the empire continued in the form of Praetorian prefectures,

Constantinian Dynasty

Constantinian dynasty reigning 59 years AD 305 through AD 363 beginning with Constantius Chlorus through to the death of Julian, named after the most famous constituent of Constantine the Great who became the sole ruler of the empire in AD 324. The Constantinian dynasty is also called Neo-Flavian because every Constantinian emperor bore the name Flavius, similarly to the rulers of the first Flavian dynasty in the 1st century.

  • Constantius II (CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS) second son of Constantine I, reigned during AD 337-AD 361,
    • Constans I (CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS) youngest son of Constantine I, reigned during AD 337-AD 350,
  • Julian II (CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS) the Apostate, cousin of Constantius II; proclaimed Augustus by his troops, reigned during AD 360-AD 363,
  • Jovian (CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS) General of Julian's army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's death, reigned during AD 363-AD 364.

Valentinian And the Theodosian Dynasty

The Valentinian Dynasty consisting of 4 emperors, ruled the Western Roman Empire during AD 364 to AD 392 and the Eastern Roman Empire during AD 364 to AD 378.

  • Valentinian I (FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS) elected to replace Jovian by the army, reigned during AD 364-AD 375,
  • Valens (FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS) brother of Valentinian I; appointed co-augustus (for the east) by him, reigned during AD 364-AD 378,
  • Gratian (FLAVIVS GRATIANVS AVGVSTVS) eldest of Valentinian I, reigned during AD 367-AD 383,

Theodosian Dynasty

In AD 392, the Emperor Theodosius I established Christianity as the state religion; a theocracy.

  • Theodosius I (FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS) son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole 'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian II in AD 392, reigned during AD 379AD 395,
  • Arcadius (FLAVIVS ARCADIVS AVGVSTVS) elder son of emperor Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Theodosius I's in AD 383 beginning reign until AD 408; became 'senior' Augustus for the east after Theodosius' death, as Emperor of the East AD 395AD 408,
  • Honorius (FLAVIVS HONORIVS AVGVSTVS) younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the west by Theodosius in AD 393 (after the death of Valentinian II) beginning reign which continued to AD 423; became 'senior' Augustus for the west after Theodosius I's death, as Emperor of the West AD 395AD 423,
  • Theodosius II (FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS) son of Arcadius; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Arcadius in AD 402 beginning reign until AD 450; became 'senior' Augustus for the east after Arcadius' death, as Emperor of the East AD 408AD 450,
  • Valentinian III (FLAVIVS PLACIDIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS) son of Constantius III, appointed Caesar (כחצר) for the west by Theodosius II after the death of Honorius in AD 424 beginning reign until AD 455, as Emperor of the West AD 425AD 455,
  • Marcian (FLAVIVS MARCIANVS AVGVSTVS) nominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II, reigned as Emperor of the East AD 450AD 457,

Also See

References

1. Divine Principle (1996)

Substantial Time-identity
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Period of Parousia Preparation Period of Persecution by the Roman Empire Period of the Sedes of the Pentarchy

Notes

  1. The Four-Hundred-Year Period of Persecution in the Roman Empire
  2. The Period of Slavery in Egypt and the Period of Persecution in the Roman Empire
  3. Shine or light Psalms 119:135 Hebrew Strong's #215 and Humble, subdue or lowly Leviticus 26:41 Hebrew Strong's #3665

External Links

List of Roman Emperors